New Parents

Immunisation 101: everything you need to know

Today we live in a country where over 93% of 5-year-olds are vaccinated. Here’s why vaccination is still important.

Written by Medibank

Across the globe, it’s estimated that immunisation programs save the lives of approximately 2.5 million children each year. With the exception of safe water, the World Health Organisation believes no other step in human progress has had such a major effect in reducing deaths worldwide.

Closer to home, we are lucky to have one of the world’s most comprehensive immunisation programs. Several infectious diseases - including tetanus and polio - have become extremely rare or in some cases, wiped off the Aussie map.- have become extremely rare or in some cases, wiped off the Aussie map.

Today, we live in a country where over 93% of five-year-olds are fully vaccinated. While this is something to be proud of, there’s still room for improvement. Here’s what you need to know about immunisations and how you too can help Australia become a safer, healthier place.

Why vaccines are important

A number of immunisations are required in the early years of a child’s life to help protect them against certain infectious diseases their young bodies may not be able to fight alone. Vaccinations work by triggering the body’s natural defense mechanism – the immune system – to build an army of antibodies whose job it is to combat nasty bacteria and viruses.

In addition to this, by immunising your baby you are also doing a good deed for the wider community. The more people that are immunised, the harder it becomes for a disease to spread and the healthier we become as a nation.

Is your family growing?

Discover useful information about planning for a baby, managing the postpartum period and the transition into parenthood - including care and birth options, pregnancy health cover and costs, fertility and IVF, tips from medical professionals and more. 

This means that people who are unable to get vaccinated, for example those who are too young or too sick, are less likely to contract an infectious disease that could have fatal consequences. This is what we call ‘herd immunity’ - an important trait of a healthy and integrated society.  

READ MORE: Six week survival guide

What vaccines does your baby need?

The Australian Government provides free childhood vaccines for Australian citizens under the National Immunisation Program for all children and young people up to 15 years of age. Starting at birth, your baby will receive a series of immunisations at specific times. This series -also known as the NIP Schedule - will carry right up until adolescence. 

Here is a list of the vaccines your baby should be given up until the age of 18 months – note that Indigenous children will receive additional vaccines. The program schedule also varies slightly depending on your state or territory.


  • Hepatitis B (usually provided in hospital in the first 24 hours of your baby’s life) 

Two months

  • First combined injection for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough (pertussis), hepatitis B, polio, Hib (haemophilus influenzae type b)
  • First injection for pneumococcal
  • First set of oral drops for rotavirus

Four months

  • Second combined injection for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough (pertussis), hepatitis B, polio, Hib (haemophilus influenzae type b)
  • Second injection for pneumococcal
  • Second set of oral drops for rotavirus

Six months

  • Third combined injection for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough (pertussis), hepatitis B, polio, Hib (haemophilus influenzae type b)
  • Third injection for pneumococcal

Twelve months

  • First combined injection for measles, mumps, rubella
  • First injection formeningococcal ACWY
  • Fourth injection for pneumococcal

Eighteen months

  • An injection for Hib (haemophilus influenzae type b)
  • A combined injection for measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox (varicella)
  • A further combined injection for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough (pertussis)

Skipping or delaying vaccinations puts your child and those around you at risk of contracting serious diseases. That’s why it’s really important to immunise on time.

READ MORE: Baby care 101

Where your baby can be immunised

You can arrange for these vaccines through a number of recognised health providers, including:

  • Immunisation clinics
  • General practices (your local doctor)
  • Some hospitals, local councils
  • Aboriginal medical services

You should remember that while the vaccines will be provided for free, the health provider (such as your local GP) may charge a consultation fee for the visit. 

Side effects

Like all medications, there is a possibility of unwanted side effects. In the case of immunisation, it’s normal to experience some mild side effects, while serious side effects are very rare. The chances of a serious reaction are greatly outweighed by the risks of infection resulting from no vaccination.

Mild side effects may include a fever and pain at the injection site. It’s recommended parents stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after their baby is immunised so that any immediate side effects can be attended to.

In the rare instance your child experiences a severe reaction at home, you should return to your local GP or immunisation clinic or go directly to the hospital. 

Guidance and support

You can visit the Australian government’s ‘Get the facts about immunisation’ page for lots of resources to help you better understand immunisation and the National Immunisation Program.

If you’d prefer to speak to someone over the phone, call the National Immunisation Program info line on 1800 671 811.

Written by Medibank

Previous article

How to introduce allergy foods

Next article

How your relationship with food will affect your child

Related articles

Subscribe to receive the best from Live Better every week. Healthy recipes, exercise tips and activities, offers and promotions – everything to help you eat, move and feel better.

By clicking sign up I understand and agree to Medibank's privacy policy